D1: Fuel/material compatibilities and fuel ageing/oil interaction as well as partial amounts of fuel procurement

Under the direction of Tec4Fuels, this sub-module examines fuel-fuel compatibility for the respective blends and for aged fuels or fuel blends. The focus is on researching the logistics chain from the raw product from the refinery, to the final usable fuel. In particular, mixed concepts, investigations into material compatibility and product stability are analyzed. In addition, a tailor-made additive strategy for the examined renewable fuels will be developed. The Oel-Waerme-Institut and Shell Global Solutions act as supporting partners.

  • material compatibility and wear of all components involved
  • consideration of the stability of the individual fuels
  • development of evaluation criteria for all components
  • conception and construction of suitable complete system test benches
  • adaptation and optimization of a test concept for the investigation of the ageing process of various blends on the rapid ageing test bench

D2: Method development 3D-CFDR for fuel blends

The focus in this module is on the basic description of the kinetics of fuel blends and the effective modelling of fuel chemistry in CAE tools for combustion process development. Kinetic models for many pure components are already available in the literature. The behavior of the combustion chemistry of fuel blends, however, is largely unknown. Suitable methods are now to be developed for this purpose. AVL Deutschland with RWTH Aachen University as its partner will take over the management of the project.

  • shock tube investigations: basic experiments on the Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) to characterize the ignition chemistry of relevant fuel blends
  • numerical description of fuel blend sprays: Investigations into the modelling of the evaporation behavior and the mixture preparation of fuel blends
  • development of kinetic models for fuel blends using data from the above investigations
  • development of a method for combustion simulation of fuel blends
  • development of a validated model chain for fuel blends to predict the effects of a change in fuel or mixture ratio on emissions and consumption.

D3: Thermal management optimization

AVL qpunkt works together with its partners Hyundai Motor Europe Technical Center, Opel Automobile and Ford Werke on the optimization of engine cooling due to changed combustion process driven boundary conditions.

  • creation of one-dimensional models of the drive, thermal management and control architecture
  • validation of the simulation model on the comparison vehicle
  • sensitivity analysis and concept development of operational strategies
  • adaptation of the thermal management configuration and definition of the operating strategy
  • optimization and standardization of the architecture and control system

D4a: Exhaust aftertreatment – components

This step involves detailed simulative and experimental research and demonstration of the emission reduction potential, when using OME / diesel blends and correspondingly adapted components of exhaust aftertreatment. It is also being investigated which simplifications of the exhaust aftertreatment system and the corresponding operating strategies (e.g. regeneration, EGR control) can be made possible depending on the blend used. The TU Darmstadt is in charge, Umicore and AVL Germany support as partners.

  • adaption Single cylinder research engine
  • basic tests on the single cylinder
  • potential evaluation of various OME- / Dieslblends
  • functional analysis of exhaust aftertreatment during flex-fuel operation
  • definition of the simulation technical boundary conditions
  • development of simulation methods and models
  • selection of suitable exhaust aftertreatment components for comprehensive investigation
  • simulation of exhaust aftertreatment systems
  • experimental investigations and validation of the single-cylinder research engine
  • potential analysis and identification of an exhaust aftertreatment system
  • design and transfer to a full motor

D4b: Exhaust aftertreatment – strategy

Together with Fraunhofer ISE, FEV Europe is developing a fuel treatment technology to improve low-temperature activity in exhaust aftertreatment systems.

  • investigation of light-off temperature of diesel OME3-5 blends and OME 3-5 at screening test bench
  • investigation of fuel preparation technology (CatVap) with diesel OME3-5 blends and OME3-5 to increase the synthesis gas content and reduce the light-off temperature
  • light-off investigations with synthetic fuel vapour composition on the laboratory test bench
  • light-off investigations on the hot gas test bench with adapted CatVap technology
  • structure of functional models for engine tests
  • emission monitoring

D5a: Injection system I

Continental Automotive and Continental Mechanical Components Germany have the common goal of providing injection system components for OME3-5, including high-pressure pumps for the use of OME3-5 in the test engines of submodule C6.

  • design, test and assembly of high-pressure pumps for operation with OME3-5
  • provision and installation of high-pressure pumps
  • basic tests on the single-cylinder test engine
  • application and examination on the full motor
  • construction and calibration of the demonstrator vehicle

D5b: Injection system II

In this work package, under the direction of Liebherr-Components Deggendorf, the possibilities for adapting the injectors to the specific properties of current-based fuels are examined in more detail. Due to their lower energy density, they require higher injection quantities in order to achieve the same engine performance as in diesel operation. At the same time, a compact design is to be achieved in order to avoid a conflict with the existing installation space. Optimization of the injection systems is also necessary for optimal fuel analysis.

  • design and manufacture of prototype injectors for OME and methanol combustion processes
  • nvestigations on the hydraulic test bench
  • investigations of the injectors for fuel-specific wear during continuous operation
  • upport of single-cylinder tests for OME and methanol with regard to the injection system
  • provision of further adapted prototypes for further investigations

D5c: Injection system III

Denso Automotive will provide a common rail injection system for diesel and DME fuels. Ford plants are working on this as partners.

  • provision of injection components and system for use of DME in single-cylinder test engine
  • provision of injection components and system for use of DME on full engine
  • provision of the injection components and the system for the use of DME on the vehicle of work package C4
  • provision of the injection components and the system for the use of diesel and DME in the bivalent vehicle operation of work package C4

D6: Fuel sensors

The aim of this step is the evaluation of current fuel sensor technology for the detection of mixtures between mineral oil based and different synthetic fuels. Continental Automotive is in charge of this project.

  • provision of fuel sensor technology for determining the composition of 2-butanol petrol mixtures in the multi-cylinder engine of work package C1
  • provision of fuel sensor technology for determining the composition of OME diesel blends in the fuel path in the multi-cylinder test engine of work package C4

D7: Model-based torque path and ignition system

The model-based torque path is represented here as an engine control function, which compensates for the influence of the fuel on the engine torque. This supports the vehicle’s flex-fuel capability. In addition, an ignition/glow system is provided and connected to the control system. FEV Europe is in charge, with Weissgerber Engineering and FH Aachen serving as partners.

  • demonstrator vehicle body with a development controller
  • function development
  • reference, calibration and basic measurement
  • software adaptation for various work packages including glow ignition
  • development of a prototype for glow ignition on commercial vehicle engines